Space travel, scientific and Commercial satellites, extraterrestrial research such as ESA’s Rosetta mission or NASA’s mars rover Opportunity can only be successful if all involved materials, components and devices are successfully tested under high-vacuum and ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Space simulation chambers vary in size from
few liters for testing of e.g. small PCB boards up to several thousand cubic meters to prove space compatibility of complete spacecrafts. However, also terrestrial space observation often requires vacuum, e.g. for mirror coating in telescopes.