How are black holes detected?
August 1, 2019
Black holes have created an array of discussion and debate in the scientific community. One of the main debates is regarding vacuum decay. This is based on a static black hole centered by a bubble that ‘nucleates’, either replacing the black hole with a true vacuum or nucleating a static bubble. The result of this is a residue black hole surrounded by true vacuum. It is widely believed that this ‘bubble’ will eventually take over the universe. However, this does not take gravitational fields into account which may increase the instability of the vacuum due to small black holes acting as nucleation seeds.
Black holes are centered by a gravitational singularity. This is a one-dimensional point consisting of a substantially small space where gravity and density become infinite and space-time curves. Many argue that as objects fall into a black hole and reach the singularity, they are altered by various gravitational attractions. This challenges the theory of General Relativity which emphasizes the quantum effects in the existence of black holes.
Although telescopes play a fundamental role in how black holes are detected, with vacuum technology advancing at an accelerated pace, it has been suggested that applications in vacuum science such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can result in the creation of black holes. This is due to the particles produced when pairs of protons collide. Such a formation would confirm theories that the universe is not four dimensional, but instead hosts other dimensions.
Black holes retain a certain enigmatic status in the world of physics. But with the recent observation, as well as progression of vacuum technology seen in telescopes and gravitational wave detectors, the observation of black holes will enable researchers to make new predictions and discoveries about the universe and its origins.