Chemical sterilization methods work at much lower temperatures than steam sterilizers and are therefore suitable for heat-sensitive materials like plastic. Instead of heat, chemical sterilization methods use the etching effect to kill microorganisms. The most common methods are plasma sterilization with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone (O3) or gas sterilization with formaldehyde or ethylene oxide. Vacuum is essential for efficient sterilization. In the first step, several vacuum cycles are necessary in order to condition the sterilization chamber for the process. After sterilization, vacuum ensures safe drying. The gases used can be reactive or harmful to human health, depending on their concentration, which is why a reliable vacuum also has a safety component. Leybold vacuum pumps provide both efficient conditioning and a safe work environment.