Successes from one of the most innovative companies in the world
3 1 | 2 1 Geert Follens Business Area President, Vacuum Technique
LEYBOLD, PIONEERS FOR 170 YEARS If there is one constant in our group’s history, it is innovation. And since Leybold’s founding in 1850, it has been a pioneer in vacuum innovation. As the world’s oldest vacuum pump manufacturer, Leybold’s pioneering inventions, such as the first molecular air pump in 1909, paved the way for other vacuum technologies, including turbomolecular pumps, which are crit- ical in many modern-day applications. For 170 years, Leybold’s passionate employees have been at the heart of the company’s success. Their innova- tion, commitment and expertise are the reasons that Leybold is trusted by customers around the world. You can learn more about Leybold’s long and illustrious heritage as well as its people – some of whom are the third generation of their family to work for Leybold - in the pages of this spe- cial commemorative book. In 2016, Leybold joined the Atlas Copco Group. Since then, the company has continued to provide innovations in vac- uum technology with its brand promise of ‘Pioneering Products, Passionately Applied’. Today, Leybold is recognized globally as a leader in industrial and high vacuum applications as well as for its strong engineering competence and superior next-generation products. On behalf of Atlas Copco Group’s management, congratulations to Leybold on reaching this wonderful milestone! I look forward to us celebrating many more future successes together.
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CONTENT About Leybold Our Founders Our Visionaries Today The Cornerstone of Success Ernst Leybold What is Vacuum? Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Gaede Tradition Meets Modernity Dr. Manfred Dunkel GAEDE Foundation Interview with Dr. Gerhard Voss Leybold: In Cologne since 1850 Nothing Else Matters Rough to Ultra-High Vacuum Focus on Market Segments Leybold: One Big Family for 170 Years Patents Milestones Future Trends Leybold‘s Service Evolution No Party in a Vacuum Present and Future 16 18 19 21 22 26 30 32 36 39 40 42 45 46 48 54 58 62 84 96 98 100
ABOUT LEYBOLD With its comprehensive product line, Leybold is one of the most successful suppliers of vacuum technology to the world market. 7 1 | 6 1 In the last 170 years since its founding in 1850, Leybold has written its chap- ter in industrial history and, not least through the groundbreaking inven- tions of Wolfgang Gaede, founded the worldwide vacuum industry. From the first industrial applications in the pro- duction of light bulbs 100 years ago until today, the company has reinvent- ed itself again and again to adapt to the requirements of the global market. Today, vacuum technology is a key technology that has become indis- pensable in many applications. Users can be found in all industrialized re- gions the world, and Leybold continues to count itself among the market leaders of this industry. throughout plays, coated architectural glass and solar cells. Vacuum sys tems are used among in the refinement of steel and the processing and packag ing of food. Vacuum is also indispensable for the operation of mass spectrometers and electron microscopes as well as in almost all areas of modern research. At Leybold, highly trained and experi- enced employees are the foundation of a comprehensive customer ser- vice. Innovative products combined with state-of-the-art production tech- nology in a global manufacturing network all come together to form a successful business. The world‘s largest service network with a multi- tude of service offerings completes the product line. Leybold’s pumps and vacuum systems create the necessary production con- ditions for the industrial manufacturing of semiconductors, data carriers, dis- Innovative, modern vacuum technolo- gy supports the megatrends of the global economy and thus contributes significantly to sustainable progress. Pioneering products. Passionately applied.
OUR FOUNDERS Ernst Leybold combined a willingness to work hard with the ability to recognize when a good business opportunity presented itself. Wolfgang Gaede personally held close to 40 patents in Germany alone for vacuum technology. Dr. Manfred Dunkel expanded his predecessor’s accomplishments to move the company forward. 9 1 | 8 1 Ernst Leybold Our Founder & Namesake (1824–1907) Wolfgang Max Paul Gaede Pioneer of modern vacuum technology (1878–1945) Dr. Manfred Dunkel Company Owner and founder of the GAEDE Archives (1898–1985)
OUR VISIONARIES TODAY Our current executive team draws its inspiration from our founders. There are still places to go in the worlds of invention and innovation in this exciting time we live in. Leybold is determined to be at the forefront in the field of vacuum research and solutions. Koen Lauwers Industrial Vacuum It is our duty to invent and lead with vacuum Carl Brockmeyer Scientific Vacuum Science and Research were the foundation of Eckart Röttger Vacuum Technique Service Convenience, Quality and Customer Value technologies that enable critical industries to Leybold’s business model 170 years ago and are at the heart of everything we do. create a better world. This is what Leybold continues to be at the core of our mission today. We understand our customer’s needs did in the past 170 years and we shall respect We help science improve our lives with – to make their service our priority. that tradition. vacuum technologies that enable scientific research and deliver real-world solutions.
1 2 | 0 2 LEYBOLD WAS ORIGINALLY BASED IN HOUSE NO. 9 ON LYSKIRCHEN FROM 1854 TO 1857.
The cornerstone of success This important anniversary would not have been possible without the tire- less commitment and work of several generations of dedicated employees. However, the businessman Ernst Leybold laid the foundation stone for success when he moved from Rothenburg ob der Tauber to Cologne in 1850 and founded his first company – initially as a commission and for- warding agency for medical glass- ware, ointment pots, thermometers and scales. In 1854 he expanded his range of products to include physical, pharmaceutical and chemical appa- ratus. In 1870 Leybold finally sold his business, which, however, continued to operate under the name of E. Leybold’s Nachfolger.
ERNST LEYBOLD Our Founder & Namesake * 11/17/1824 Rothenburg/Tauber (Germany) † 2/10/1907 Cologne (Germany) 3 2 | 2 2 Ernst Leybold, like his father and grandfather, started out as a mer- chant. In 1846, he left the house he outgrew in the small town of Rothenburg and took up a sales position in Cologne with Böcker, an import com- pany. By 1850, he was working with a coffee import agency. In 1851, his landlord, Martin Kothe, a sales agent and importer of foreign wines and various pharmacy supplies, died sud- denly and left behind a wife with no business experience, so Leybold stepped in to help. First, he continued simply running the business. He then became involved financially, and finally took over the company in 1863, under the name E. Leybold (formerly Leybold & Kothe). As part of the settlement with Kothe’s heirs, Leybold expanded the pharma- cy supplies business line. This deci- sion proved to be a good one. The business of physical and pharmaceu- tical apparatuses, along with acces- sories, was so successful that Leybold soon owned his own house and be- gan to acquire land.
In 1864, he opened his main shop in a new building in the Schildergasse/ Brüderstraße. At this time, he also had a modest amount of in-house produc- tion. Due to its economic success, in 1865, Leybold and Julius v. Holleben also founded a glassworks company in Ehrenfeld one year prior (since 1872 Rhein. Glashütten AG). In 1870 Leybold decided to sell his first company to his partner Otto Ladendorff and the mer- chant Emil Schmidt, who successfully continued the company as “E. Leybold’s Nachfolger” (Company Name). limit himself to simply selling the par- celed out land, for example, the area between Cologne’s current traffic ar- teries, the Bayenthal Belt, Gustav- Heinemann-Ufer, the Military Ring Road and the Bonner Straße. Instead, he tried to increase the area’s residen- tial value. This included road con- struction measures within the colony, giving it a solid infrastructure with sewers and gas connections, as well as negotiations with the authorities in order to improve transportation con- nections to Cologne (e.g. a tram). As such, Leybold dedicated the last years of his life more to urban development and various real estate projects than to the further development of vacuum innovations or other scientific projects. He is still considered one of the most influential persons in the 170-year his- tory of Leybold GmbH. His flexibility and complexity is still reflected in the values of the company today. At the beginning of the 1860’s, Ley- bold had already been dabbling in property speculation and had been successful with various real estate transactions. He then turned his atten- tion to a spectacular urban planning project, the Marienburg Villa Colony south of Co- logne. He had purchased the Marien- burg estate along with the manor house and another 500 acres of land for a modest sum. He moved into the manor house himself in 1873, and leased out the land. Leybold did not the construction of
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WHAT IS VACUUM? In physics, a vacuum is a theoretical concept which is used to describe the (total) absence of matter in space. language, In everyday the word vacuum is used to describe a space that’s largely devoid of air. There are different definitions term depending on whether we’re talking about natural sciences, philosophy, technology, chemistry or physics. this for 7 2 | 6 2 In technical practice, a vacuum is a space with a virtual absence of matter. There are no solid objects or liquid. There is very little gas, and this results in extremely low gas pressure. In physics, a vacuum is a theoretical concept which is used to describe the (total) absence of matter in space. The idea of vacuum became import- ant in the twentieth century with the introduction of the incandescent light bulb and the electron tube. A techni- cal vacuum is created by using a pump to remove (gas) molecules from a sealed space. Pumping creates a vacuum, i.e., pressure within a space that is lower than the ambient pressure. If the pressure falls below 300 mbar and progressively more molecules are re- moved from the space, the result will be one of the following: Rough vacuum Fine vacuum High vacuum Ultra-high vacuum The question of whether an absolute- ly empty space can exist is still being debated by physicists today. Accor- ding to quantum field theory, virtual particles are constantly being created and destroyed everywhere. A vacuum is generally understood to mean only the absence of matter. Electroma- gnetic radiation and other physical fields may be present in the space being considered, which means it’s not empty. N O E L I G W I T R I C S B L U C A T U T V M ! U C T B U E O L H H The Electric Bulbs (1879) invention of electricity allowed us to light up places which were previously unlit. Vacuum tubes were essential in the production of all light bulbs. Conventional light bulbs and the more modern “Leuchtstoff- röhren” and halogen (energy saving) bulbs need vacuum to prevent the presence of harmful oxygen and hu- midity. Modern LED lamps need vac- uum, as the manufacturing process involves vacuum coating and baking.
Leybold has consistently succeeded in combin- ing tradition and innovation again and again in the course of its company history. Because of this, the company is proud to celebrate a very special milestone in 2020 with its 170th anniversary. FROM OLD TO NEW In 1899 E. Leybold’s Nachfolger offered one of the first air pumps for sale. In 2020 the company introduces the latest innovation of dry vacuum pumps to its customers.
9 2 | 8 2 THE MAGDEBURG HEMISPHERES (1657) The Magdeburg hemispheres, invented by German scientist and mayor of Magdeburg, Otto von Guericke, are a pair of large copper hemispheres, with mating rims which were used to demonstrate the power of atmo- spheric pressure. When the rims were sealed with grease and the air was pumped out, it created a vacuum that even a team of horses could not pull apart! Magdeburg hemispheres were originally invented to demon- strate an air pump that von Geurick had invented, in addition to the con- cept of atmospheric pressure. The first artificial vacuum had been produced a few years earlier by Evangelista Torricelli, and this had inspired von Guericke to design the world’s first vacuum pump, which consisted of a piston and cylinder with one-way flap valves. Magdeburg hemispheres first became popular in physics lectures as a way to demonstrate of the strength of air pressure, and are still used in education. The original hemi- spheres are housed in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
The weight of air and its absence are forces that can be put to work! Otto von Guericke (1608 - 1647) When he invented the first piston vacuum air pump in 1649, he would never have dreamed what might be possible with this empty space some 370 years later. His pump principle remained nearly unchan- ged for more than 200 years before further development took place through the de- sign of vacuum pumps. Wolfgang Gaede (1878 - 1945) In 1906, E. Leybold’s Nachfolger began working with Wolfgang Gaede. Various types of research on the Volta effect in vacuum led him to his life’s work: the creation of an en- tirely new and effective apparatus for gener- ating and measuring the high vacuum. Gaede held nearly 40 patents in Germany in addition to numerous patents abroad. 1655 1911 1913
a o n i d y a e a s t, I a l w n ti o n i n v e e u u r s n I p c i n t e r e e w it h a n ti fi h W c i e o f s 1 3 | 0 3 p e u m u t o s c n . 01/03/1909 Granting of the Rotating Vacuum Pump patent (patent for the molecular air pump)
PROF. DR. WOLFGANG GAEDE Pioneer of modern vacuum technology * 05/25/1878 in Lehe, Bremerhaven (Germany) † 06/24/1945 in Munich (Germany) Another person who had a significant influence on the fate of the company at the beginning of the 20th century was Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Gaede. In 1897, Gaede began studying medicine at the University of Freiburg in Breisgau, but soon switched to the Institute of Physics, where he received his doctorate in 1901 through his thesis entitled, “On the change in the specific heat of met- als with temperature”. Subsequent research on the Volta ef- fect in vacuum was unsuccessful, however, because the level of vacuum that could be achieved with the pump technology at the time was insufficient. This problem led him to his life’s work, the creation of an entirely new, effective apparatus for generating and measur- ing high vacuum. In 1905, he present- ed his rotating mercury air pump at the natural scientists’ meeting in Merano and caused quite a stir, despite the fact that this pump (along with his oil cap- sule pump) were only technical im- provements of already known princi- ples. In 1906, E. Leybold’s Nachfolger began working with him. From 1906 until his death, the consulting contract with E. Leybold’s Nachfolger in Cologne enabled him to continue his research in his private laboratory, first in Karlsruhe and later in Munich. His creative mind put previously held opinions to the test such as the idea, for example, of using the laws of mo- tion for gas molecules themselves (contained in the kinetic gas theory) to create a vacuum. After studying the fundamentals of this theory in depth, the molecular pump was introduced in 1912, followed in 1915 by the diffu- sion pump: magnificent creations of unknown effectiveness. And, as is the case with groundbreaking inventions, Gaede was forced to abandon some of his previous beliefs when he devel- oped this principle. And with great success: today, the diffusion pump dominates laboratories and factories all over the world. In 1919, Gaede moved to Karlsruhe Technical University as Professor of Experimental Physics, where he worked in the following research areas: vacuum technology, radio and com- munications engineering, processes for obtaining pure hydrogen and mer- cury, research into lightning protection devices, and movement of liquids in a rotating hollow ring. Gaede held almost 40 patents in Germany as well as numerous patents abroad. n o i t a u c a v E r o f e c i v e D t n e t a P e h t f o g n i t n a r G 3 1 9 1 / 5 2 / 9 0 ) p m u p n o s u ff d r o i i f t n e t a p (
TRADITION MEETS MODERNITY After 170 years of company history, the development and production of vacuum pumps continues in the tradition of Ernst Leybold and Wolfgang Gaede... Leybold, part of the Swedish group Atlas Copco, is today one of the world’s leading suppliers of vacuum technolo- gy and system solutions. With subsid- iaries, dealers and representatives worldwide, the company offers its cus- tomers one of the most extensive ser- vice networks in the vacuum technolo- gy industry. Its product line includes backing pumps, high and ultra-high vacuum pumps, vacuum systems, vacuum gauges, leak detectors, com- ponents and valves, as well as consult- ing and engineering for complete vacu- um solutions for specific customer applications. Through the DRYVAC product line for example, the company launched a compact dry compressing screw vacuum pump for industrial applica- tions. The integration of a frequency converter directly on the pump helps save costs when connected to the electrical periphery. To run existing vacuum processes as optimally as possible, the versatile functions of their frequency convert- ers can be individually adapted. These robust pumps are able to with- stand applications that generate large amounts of dust and vapor. 3 3 | 2 3 But back to the history: In 1967, E. Leybold’s Nachfolger merged with Heraeus Hochvakuum GmbH. Up to this point, Dr. Manfred Dunkel had led the company for 36 years and had made significant contributions to the company’s worldwide recognition through expansion of the product line. On October 1, 1987, Leybold Heraeus was renamed Leybold Aktiengesellschaft, and the company headquarters moved from Cologne to Hanau. In 2006, the trademark was used exclusively by Leybold Vacuum. 1850 Working independently of each other, company found- ers Ernst Leybold in Cologne and Wilhelm Carl Heraeus in Hanau lay separate foundations for subsequent high-tech firms 1967 Leybold merges with Heraeus Hochvakuum to form Leybold-Heraeus 1994 Oerlikon-Bührle acquires Leybold Group and merges it with Balzers to form Balzers & Leybold
Oil Diffusion Pumps 2004 Rebranding to 2006 Rebranding to 2016 Rebranding to Leybold, now part of the Atlas Copco Group
N A T I O M ! N I C U U U A C M M T V O U L C H O A O D I G I T W I T N 5 3 | 4 3 Computer (1941) The microelectronics revolution is closely related to the vacuum technique. Beginning in the 1950s with the growth of tailored semiconductor ma- terials, the size of transistors (MOSFETs) had been dramatically reduced. Harsh processes under low pressure challenged vacuum equipment from the start. Vacuum pumps developed for this industry have become standard. Nowadays XUV lithography requires enormous vacuum equipment just to generate the light that is used to pattern the semiconductors.
DR. MANFRED DUNKEL Company owner and founder of the GAEDE Archives * 11/27/1898 in Bremen (Germany) † 04/26/1985 in Cologne (Germany) from his Manfred Dunkel took over the Cologne- based company, a special factory for high-vacuum pumps and scientific teach- ing materials founded by E. Leybolds’ Nachfolger, father-inlaw, Alfred Schmidt in 1931. Using the vacuum technology developed by W. Gaede, a university professor in Karlsruhe, he succeeded in expanding the process of high-vacuum technolo- gy. In 1952, he founded the subsidiary Leybold-Hochvakuumanlagen GmbH. In 1967, under his direction, the two companies merged with the Heraeus vacuum department in Hanau to form the Leybold Heraeus GmbH & Co. 7 3 | 6 3 In 1968, he retired into private life. Dunkel held numerous honorary posi- tions and received numerous awards. From 1964 to 1966, he was chairman of the metal industry’s employers’ as- sociation in Cologne, and from 1950 to 1969, he served as a board mem- ber of the association of German pre- cision-mechanical and optical industry e.V. as well as a lay judge, commercial and employment judge in Cologne. Manfred Dunkel established the GAEDE Foundation in 1984 and laid the groundwork for its assets. Dr. Manfred Dunkel Company owner and GAEDE Archive founder
Memories from my life At Leybold in Cologne I have reported on the turbulent events at I have reported on the turbulent events at Leybold in Cologne in the summer of 1931 Leybold in Cologne in the summer of 1931 and on the redevelopment measures car- and on the redevelopment measures car- ried out at that time in the company’s his- ried out at that time in the company’s his- tory in addition to my meeting with Gaede. tory in addition to my meeting with Gaede. I became good friends with him after the I became good friends with him after the performance in Mannheim, had visited him in performance in Mannheim, had visited him in Karlsruhe and saw his work. We then went Karlsruhe and saw his work. We then went skiing on the Feldberg at Easter to discuss skiing on the Feldberg at Easter to discuss our problems. There, I also met his sister, our problems. There, I also met his sister, Hannah, who was his evil spirit. Whenever Hannah, who was his evil spirit. Whenever the “little wolf” was interested in a female the “little wolf” was interested in a female being, Hannah stepped in. Staying on the being, Hannah stepped in. Staying on the Feldberg, the friendship between Gaede Feldberg, the friendship between Gaede and I became stronger, especially since he and I became stronger, especially since he had already declared at that time that I had already declared at that time that I was better suited to the management of was better suited to the management of Leybold than my father-inlaw. Leybold than my father-inlaw. On Easter Saturday or Easter Sunday, a On Easter Saturday or Easter Sunday, a holiday dinner was held at the Feldberger holiday dinner was held at the Feldberger Hof, with all the gentlemen in dark suits or Hof, with all the gentlemen in dark suits or tuxedos and the ladies in elaborate eve- tuxedos and the ladies in elaborate eve- ning dresses. Who can describe my horror ning dresses. Who can describe my horror when Hannah - arriving so late that every- when Hannah - arriving so late that every- one could see her - walked through the one could see her - walked through the hall! I must say that she was a stately hall! I must say that she was a stately apparition in the manner of the Wagner apparition in the manner of the Wagner singers of past decades. singers of past decades. She probably originally wanted to be on She probably originally wanted to be on stage, but later became a singing instruc- stage, but later became a singing instruc- tor. She wore her hair in an Art Nouveau tor. She wore her hair in an Art Nouveau style with snails above her ears, and from style with snails above her ears, and from there on her body grew bigger and big- there on her body grew bigger and big- ger, since she was a reformer and apostle ger, since she was a reformer and apostle of nature and, of course, did not wear a of nature and, of course, did not wear a corset. She appeared in a grey cardigan, corset. She appeared in a grey cardigan, with slippers on her feet, and took her with slippers on her feet, and took her place at our table, where I would have place at our table, where I would have liked to sink into the ground. Not a word liked to sink into the ground. Not a word was heard in the hall. The first words that was heard in the hall. The first words that were audible were Hannah’s expressed were audible were Hannah’s expressed disapproval of the change in customs at disapproval of the change in customs at the Feldberger Hof. In earlier years, no the Feldberger Hof. In earlier years, no one would have thought of coming to a one would have thought of coming to a winter sports hotel in a dinner jacket. I winter sports hotel in a dinner jacket. I could only gesture my horror to two nice could only gesture my horror to two nice Jewish girls at the next table, with whom Jewish girls at the next table, with whom I had become friends and who were as I had become friends and who were as shocked as I was. shocked as I was. Gaede was not Leybold’s only intellectual Gaede was not Leybold’s only intellectual asset. Dr. Krönke in Berlin had made a con- asset. Dr. Krönke in Berlin had made a con- nection with Manfred von Ardenne, whose nection with Manfred von Ardenne, whose cathode ray tubes, including control units, cathode ray tubes, including control units, were distributed exclusively by Leybold. were distributed exclusively by Leybold. Orders eventually increased so much that Orders eventually increased so much that v. Ardenne could not keep up with deliver- v. Ardenne could not keep up with deliver- ies, so we founded a joint company for ies, so we founded a joint company for production and distribution. production and distribution. Another major event was the take- Another major event was the take- over of the Sprenger teaching materi- over of the Sprenger teaching materi- als company in the summer of 1932 and als company in the summer of 1932 and the entry of Albin Sprenger into the the entry of Albin Sprenger into the Leybold’s management team. As de- Leybold’s management team. As de- scribed in detail in the company histo- scribed in detail in the company histo- ry, the second half of 1931 was entirely ry, the second half of 1931 was entirely devoted to restoring financial liquidity and devoted to restoring financial liquidity and reorganizing Leybold. My wife was ac- reorganizing Leybold. My wife was ac- tively involved in that process, and from tively involved in that process, and from January 1932, I had the company firmly January 1932, I had the company firmly under control. under control. However, the efforts and excitement had However, the efforts and excitement had taken over my wife and I so much that taken over my wife and I so much that we supposedly went skiing in the southern we supposedly went skiing in the southern Black Forest over Christmas but in reality, Black Forest over Christmas but in reality, we slept in for ten days. I used the sec- we slept in for ten days. I used the sec- ond half of December to visit Leybold’s ond half of December to visit Leybold’s foreign representatives, who did not meet foreign representatives, who did not meet my financial expectations. my financial expectations. Autumn 1981 Autumn 1981 Manfred Dunkel Manfred Dunkel
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D U U M ! O C O A D F T V L U O O O C N H W I T Refrigerators (1876) Servicing refrigerators and air conditioners re- quires unclogging the cooling circuit and adding refrigerant. While the manufacturing method for re- frigerators has remained largely un- changed, the type of refrigerant used is now less harmful. To ensure a humidity-free state, a vacuum of 10-2 mbar is used, which is typically achieved with two-stage rotary vane pumps. Vacuum is also used in checking compressor and charged cooling circuits. Donated in 1984 by Manfred Dunkel, it is commonly known as the “GAEDE-Stiftung Preis”. The GAEDE Prize, donated by Manfred Dunkel and sponsored by Leybold in Cologne, has been awarded annu- ally since 1986. The prize is awarded in recognition of outstanding work in research and applications in the fol- lowing fields: vacuum physics and technology, thin films, surface phys- ics, materials and methods of solid state electronics and nanoscience and technology. The prize consists of a certificate, a model of Gaede’s molecular (air) pump from 1912 and a cash prize of 10,000 euros. Considered are out- standing achievements of young sci- entists who, at the time of the propos- al, have not yet been offered a permanent position as a university professor or similar position in a re- search institution or in industry, and are generally less than 40 years old. The research achievements to be awarded must be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. In addition, reference may be made to recognized doctoral or habilitation papers or other evidence. Both third-party nominations and self- nominations are accepted.
INTERVIEW WITH DR. GERHARD VOSS Studies: Diploma in Physics Highest Degree Completed: Doctorate Joined Leybold: December 1, 1984 Dr. Voss is one of Leybold’s longest- serving employees. He is in his 60s and still works two half-days per week. Dr. Voss heads up the Gaede Archive and enjoys collecting old pumps and historical documents. 1 4 | 0 4 When did you first start working at Leybold? What department did you work in? I started in the Technical Sales Depart- ment VV3 at the end of 1984. I was selling refrigerators for superconducting magnets used in magnetic resonance imaging. You were with Leybold for a very long time. Looking back, what was your best time? That would’ve been my last ten years, from 2005 to 2015, when I was head of the Vacuum Academy. We really got to know our customers along with many interesting people. When was the Geade Archive established? The Gaede Archive was established by Dr. Günter Reich ( † 1997) around 1990. Dr. Reich collected the exhibits on the life and work of Wolfgang Gaede, and it’s these pieces which form the actual collection. I took over the Gaede Archive on July 1, 2017, and tried to make the exhibits more appealing to visitors. Where do you see the Gaede Archive in the future? We need to keep Wolfgang Gaede and Leybold’s past in our rear-view mirror. Without Wolfgang Gaede’s inventions, Leybold would not have survived the world economic crisis which began in 1929 and lasted nearly ten years. In the future, I’d like to present the Gaede Archive in such a way that it’s accessible to everyone. It contains so many inter- esting things from Leybold’s history which, unfortunately, would otherwise be forgotten. What is the most valuable exhibit in the collection? Gaede’s molecular air pump from 1912 and his rotary vane pump with its gas ballast device from 1936 (the year the Olympic Games were held in Berlin). Both are the world’s first. Would these interest young people in vacuum technology? Yes, I would say, of course. You can- not see, hear, smell, or touch vacuum, but every microchip has gone through this state several times during its manu- facturing process. Only under vacuum can you produce the objects that people today can’t live without. With- out vacuum technology, we’d be stuck in 1900. Though admittedly, one could live back then, too.
LEYBOLD: IN COLOGNE SINCE 1850 It was not until 1957 that Leybold moved to its current company headquarters at Bonnerstraße 498. Before that, several moves within the city had taken place... 3 4 | 2 4 1863–1927 1854–1857 House no. 9 on Lyskirchen 1857–1863 Haus zum Pfau – An der Sandbahn 10 Former brewers guild house on the Schildergasse Schildergasse 96
NOTHING ELSE MATTERS Regarding the dominance of vacuum in our universe. Vacuum is an unusual, exotic state for us humans in everyday life. Nothing- ness is difficult to comprehend and difficult to describe. The Universe, on the other hand, is “full” of Nothing. We have the pleasure to live on one of the rare islands of Something, which is vir- tually the opposite of Nothing. If we could enlarge the smallest air particle to the size of a basketball, the distance to the next basketball, i.e., the next air particle, would be five me- ters. Between these particles, there is absolutely nothing. In other words, air basically consists of nothing and a small percentage of matter. The greater the distances in our universe, the more this disproportion is revealed. If we now inflate the same basketball to the size of our sun, planet Earth would have only the size of a grain of rice. It moves around the sun once in a year at a distance of 23 meters. Again, there is nothing in between — apart from a negligible amount of re- sidual gas and a few planets which would altogether be smaller than a mandarin orange. The sun’s closest neighbor is a star that – in these dimensions – would have only the diameter of a golf ball, and it would be as far away from the sun as Mumbai is from Cologne! When we move on to the more than one hundred billion stars in our Milky Way, the more than one hundred bil- lion galaxies in our universe, and the distances between them, we en- counter an ever-increasing empty space. We can be glad to live on such an exotic and wonderful planet as Earth, which is full of matter. Here, we even need to use vacuum pumps to create empty spaces for use in nu- merous applications.
ROUGH TO ULTRA-HIGH VACUUM: LEARN ABOUT THE DIFFERENCES Rough vacuum pumps all the way to high vacuum pumps represent specialized equipment. Rough and Medium Vacuum Pumps Rough vacuum pumps range from at- mospheric pressure and 1 mbar and medium vacuum pumps include pres- sures in the 1 to 10-3 mbar range. When working in rough and medium vacuum conditions, it is important to understand that each job needs to be evaluated to determine which pump is right for it. No single pump is going to be the right op- tion for every job being performed. Many of these vacuum pumps are used to support higher-level vacuum pumps. If rough vacuum pumps were not used, the higher-level pumps would not be able to work efficiently. In some instances, they would not be able to work at all. 7 4 | 6 4 These categories include the following types of vacuum pumps: Diaphragm pumps, Scroll pumps, Rotary vane pumps, Screw pumps, Roots pumps High Vacuum Pumps The pressure range for high vacuum (HV) pumps is between 10-7 and 10-3 mbar. HV pumps are generally used for industrial purposes. These include: Coatings, Composite plastic moldings, Electron microscopy, Flight instruments, Mass spectroscopy, Medical applications, Vacuum tubes Highest peak in the Alps (Mt. Blanc) 4.81 km ca. 560 mbar
Orbit of meteo satellites 36.000 km high vacuum <10-10 mbar Orbit of satellites close to earth 200 to 1000 km high vacuum <10-4 mbar Orbit of International Space Station 400 km high vacuum <10-4 mbar Altitude of Stratos Balloon 31 km high vacuum <10 mbar Usual cruising altitude of passenger airplanes 8 to 12 km ca. 290 mbar Sea level 0 km 1013 mbar (norm value) i h g h - a r t l u m u u c a v m u u c a v h g h i m u u c a v m u d e m i m u u c a v h g u o r 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 1 10 250 500 750 1.000 mbar hPa
Ultra-high Vacuum Pumps (UHV) pumps Ultra-high vacuum operate at pressures between 10-7 and 10-12 mbar. UHV pumps are generally associated with work being performed in the nuclear research and high- energy physics fields. At this level, turbomolecular pumps and ion getter pumps are used. Extreme High Vacuum Pumps The pressure range for extreme high vacuum (XHV) pumps is generally de- fined as readings of 10-12 mbar and lower. This type of pump is linked to levels found in outer space. One would expect to find these levels when work- ing with orbiting satellites. 9 4 | 8 4 There is a specific pump that is appro- priate for each type of application. Thoroughly analyzing the conditions and the materials being used is a key part of choosing the right pump and getting the best results. FOCUS ON MARKET SEGMENTS Analytical Measurement and analysis technology, Electron Microscopes, Spectrometers, Leak detectors Semi & Solar Production of wafers and solar modules. Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Coating, Lamination of solar modules, Si-crystal pulling Charging Evacuation, Filling & Testing of Lamps, RAC cooling circuits, Brake-liquids lines, cooling circuits, gas-bottles, heat-pipes, etc. Coating Large Area Coating (Architectural glass), Display (LCD-OLED), Wear protection, Optical coating, Reflector Coating
Chemical & Pharma Chemical / pharmaceutical Industry, machine manufacturing for a.m. industries, incl. Pharma freeze dryers Plastic & Composite Processing Processing of polymers, plastics, rubber or compos- ite materials. Production of related machines Utility Vacuum Pick & Place machinery, CNC routers, sewage or water degassing, bottle forming, stone or tile production, vacuum cleaning, etc. Research & Development Universities and Institutes, R&D equipment manufacturers, Big research centers, Space simulation Energy & Electro Energy Production, Electronic components, Transformer Drying UF6 enrichment, Fly Wheel, Energy Storage (e.g. Lithium Battery) Food Processing and Packaging Equipment for processing or packaging of food or similar products, food producers. Botanical processing. Furnace & Metallurgy Steel or special metal production Heat processing of metals in furnaces Metal welding (E-Beam, Plasma General Industry Machines & parts e.g. for Industrial Cleaning, Sterilization, Plasma Applications, Leak testing, Drying, Laser. Vehicle construction (automotive)
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SINCE 1850 EXPERIENCE IN 1906 Professor Gaede developed the first Molecular Pump More than 1,700 Employees Worldwide 3 5 | 2 5 30,000 Products 58 Locations Worldwide More than 50,000 Satisfied Customers 0 5 8 1 0 0 9 1 0 5 9 1
IN VACUUM TECHNOLOGY Manufacturing Facilities Service Technology Centres (STC) 7 10 Sales & Service Offices Technicians In-House 32 84 Researchers & Developers In Our R&D Team 166 Agents & Distributors >90 168 Marketing & Product Management 90 Field Service Engineers 82 Qualified Service Personnel 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2
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LEYBOLD: ONE BIG FAMILY FOR 170 YEARS Leybold is more than a one-generation-employer! Looking back at the staff history, you will find that some names appear several times in different years and departments. Simply coincidence? Not always! The Meyer family for example is represented with Leybold for three generations. First, Herbert Meyer joined in 1954 as a precision mechan- ic. 23 years later, his son Wolfgang started his apprenticeship in the sales Department. Well, it’s no surprise to see that his grandson, Wolfgang’s son Sven is now also working at Leybold! The story of this family doesn’t end here! Sven Meyer met his wife at Leybold and, who knows, maybe his own child will continue this successful family story at Leybold. Out of 170 years of Leybold, the Meyer Family counts 96 years of employment. From left to right: Sven Meyer, Wolfgang Meyer
Another example of long-lasting affilia- tion to the company is the Werner family. The story began quite differently how- ever: In 1978 Gotthard started his ap- prenticeship, and upon completion, began his new job in the accounting department where he still works to this day. In spite of the world economic cri- sis in 2008, Leybold still recruited young talents for securing the future. Among them was Gotthard’s twins Hannah and Tobias! Both started their appren- ticeship as industrial clerk that year. Now both are still working for Leybold, Hannah in the demand center and Tobias at the service department. From left to right: Hannah Werner, Gotthard Werner, Tobias Werner 7 5 | 6 5
From left to right: Severine Grimberg, Lea Grimberg Our next family story is the one of the Grimbergs: Séverine started in 1998 at Leybold, her daughter Lea was one year old. Nobody knew at that time that Lea would also join the Leybold family in 2016. Now Lea is working for the Service Department, where Séverine started and is also studying Marketing and Digital Media. These are just a few of the many exam- ples of Leybold’s ability to commit to its employees and even their family mem- bers. Leybold is proud to be a company with lots of multi-generation employees.
9 5 | 8 5 In January 1909, the “Rotierende Vakuumpumpe” patent was granted by the Imperial Patent Office in Berlin. The patent’s owner was Wolfgang Gaede. His “Rotating Vacuum Pump” was the so-called “Molekular-(Luft) Pumpe” (Molecular Pump), the first dry compressing vacuum pump in the world which was oil-free and free of liquid mercury. Later on, Gaede would describe the physical principle of his molecular pump in his habilitation treatise entitled, “Über die äußere Reibung der Gase”. “Äußere Reibung” refers to the fact that there is an interaction between a fast-moving wall and the gas mole- 01/03/1909 Granting of the Rotating Vacuum Pump patent (patent for the molecular air pump) PATENTS
03/28/1908 Granting of the Check Valve for the Outlet of Vane Pumps for pumping Gases Gaede’s patent implied that an oil-covered check valve for the out- let of a rotary vane pump improves the ultimate pressure of the pump significantly. As a consequence of this patent, Leybold’s rotary vane pumps represented the bench- mark for this type of vacuum pumps in the first half of the 20th century. Today, Gaede’s patent is used in every rotary vane pump. E.g., Leybold’s famous two-stage rotary vane pumps of the TRIVAC series achieve ultimate pressures of less than 0.001 mbar. cules in a channel covered by this fast-moving wall. Gaede demonstrated that in such a system, gas molecules are dragged through the channel, gen- erating compression. From the histori- cal point of view, it’s worth mentioning that Leybold manufactured Gaede’s molecular pump exclusively for more than ten years, beginning in 1912. Today, Gaede’s basic principle on the dragging of gases through channels is used turbo- molecular pumps. thousands of in Gaede’s “Molecular Pump” (left) and Gaede’s “Rotary Vane Pump” (right) Both pumps were built exclusively by E. Leybold’s Nachfolger, Cologne, in a series. The picture is from the “Special Price List No. VI on molecular Pumps according to Dr. Gaede”.
84 years ago, in the Olympic year of 1936, Leybold began production of ro- tary vane pumps which featured a “gas ballast” mechanism. For the first time in the history of vacuum technology, these vacuum pumps had the ability to pump condensable vapors, in particular, water vapor. Wolfgang Gaede had developed “the gas ballast principle” between 1933 and 1935 in his private laboratory in Karlsruhe, sponsored by Leybold. Gaede’s patent “Ein- oder mehrstufige Vakuumpumpe zur Erzeugung tiefer Drücke zum Absaugen von Dämpfen und Gas/Dampf-Gemischen“(*) was published in December 1935. From a historical point of view, it’s worth mentioning that Leybold held the exclusive rights to manufacture rotary vane pumps featuring Gaede’s gas ballast mechanism. The gas ballast principle is characterized by “sophisti- cated simplicity” granting the ability to overcome the problem that vapors (in particular water vapor) condense in the pumping chamber of a vacuum pump during the compression cycle. Switch- ing on the gas ballast creates a perma- nent gas flow which enters the pump- ing chamber of the pump during the compression cycle. Consequently, in- side the pumping chamber, both the vapor and the ballast gas are com- pressed, however, in such a way that the vapor doesn’t condense. Note that Wolfgang Gaede described the world‘s first propellant pump (bet- ter known as the “diffusion pump”): “The invention concerns a device for generating a high vacuum by means of diffusion.” The patent tit- le ensured that other developers with similar products would have to pay a licensing fee to Leybold in the early years. 1 6 | 0 6 09/25/1913 Granting of the Patent Device for Evacuation (patent for the diffusion pump)
12/22/1935 Granting of the Single-stage or multi-stage Vacuum Pump for generating low pressures including the extraction of vapor and gas/vapor mixtures (patent for the gas ballast principle) von Kapselpumpen 29.03.1908 Erteilung des Patents Rückschlagventil für die Austrittsöff- nung zur Förderung von Gasen 03.01.1909 Erteilung des Patents Rotierende Vakuumpumpe (Patent zur Molekular-Luftpumpe) 25.09.1913 Erteilung des Patents Vorrichtung zum Evakuieren (Patent zur Diffusionspumpe) 22.12.1935 Erteilung des Patents Ein- oder mehrstufige Vakuum- pumpe zur Erzeugung tiefer Drücke zum Absaugen von Dämpfen und Gas-Dampf-Gemischen (Patent zum Gas-Ballast-Prinzip) the ballast gas flow is rated in such a way that the compressed ballast gas opens the exhaust valve (typically at 1200 mbar) before the compressed vapor condenses (in case of water va- por, this happens at a partial pressure of about 300 mbar). Consequently, and of prime importance, the vapor does not transform itself into a liquid but exits the pump as a vapor. Nowadays, both rotary vane pumps and dry compressing screw vacuum pumps are fitted with the gas ballast mechanism. Generally speaking, each vacuum pump having the ability to compress the pumped gas to atmo- spheric pressure is currently fitted with the gas ballast mechanism. (*) “Single-stage or multi-stage vacuum pump for the generation of low pressures for pumping vapors and gas/vapor mixtures”
3 6 | 2 6 PIONEERS WITH A PASSION FOR NOTHING Leybold – from trading company to world market leader in vacuum technology. When German politician and physi- cist Otto von Guericke postulated the existence of a vacuum 370 years ago in Magdeburg, he must have had confidence in his ideas. “Let’s give it a try,” was his answer to his critics. Their skepticism was not unexpect- ed. They suffered from ‘horror vacui’ to such an extent that it caused them to blindly cling to the Greek philoso- phers’ school of thought that a vacuum could not exist. But Otto von Guericke was courageous and actu- ally took a chance. His inclination to explore led him to experiment with the Magdeburg hemispheres, which he demonstrated using 16 horses. He placed two copper hemisphere shells on top of each other and sealed them with wet leather. After evacuation, the external air pressure held the hemispheres together so strongly that 16 horses could not pull them apart. The courage and business acumen of innovative personalities Even before this performance, von Guericke had invented the first piston vacuum air pump in 1649. In 1643, the Italian physicist and mathemati- cian Evangelista Toricelli had even used a mercury-filled tube to prove that the air was empty - without a pump. However, nobody could have guessed how much more this noth- ingness would achieve. Some 250 years passed before economic bene- fits would be derived from these find- ings, whose development was also initiated by the courage and business acumen of innovative personalities. Businessman Ernst Leybold laid the foundation for this when he moved from Rothenburg ob der Tauber to Cologne in 1850 and founded his first company, which began as a sales and for medical import business 1850 1860 MILESTONES
In 1876, the first catalogue of phys- ics equipment was published for use in secondary and high schools. This product line was gradually expanded to include chemical apparatuses for laboratories. A special brochure on Crookes’ experiments followed four years later, from which we quote the following, “There is no doubt that the new and often exciting develop- ments in high vacuum will incite fur- ther experiments”. To demonstrate such experiments, the Toepler Pump, an early positive displace- ment vacuum pump which was manually operated by alternately raising and lowering a mercury col- umn, was included in the catalogue. glassware, ointment pots, thermome- ters and scales. In 1854, Leybold ex- panded his line of products to include physical, pharmaceutical and chemi- cal equipment. In 1863, he finally took over the company under the name E. Leybold. In 1870, Ernst Leybold sold his business, which, however, continued to operate as E. Leybold’s Nachfolger. In 1871, the product line included as many as 585 pieces of physics equipment, as well as “Physics Cab- inets” (complete collections of equipment and instruments) which were offered for the first time. The company’s history proudly records an order received from Quito Univer- sity, Ecuador, worth 30,000 Thalers (approx. 250,000.- dollars by To- day’s standards}. This established LEYBOLD as a company of interna- tional reputation. 1870 1880 1890
1906 Innovations of undiminished importance. The triumphal procession of vacuum technology began in 1906 through col- laboration with Dr. Wolfgang Gaede, Professor of Physics in Karlsruhe. Gaede was a researcher par excellence whose credo was, “If I pursue an idea out of scientific interest, I always come up with an invention.” Leybold’s coop- eration with Gaede was correspond- ingly fruitful. It produced important in- novations that are still relevant today: the invention of the molecular air pump, the basic principle of the turbomolecu- lar pump (1911) and the use of the dif- fusion pump (1913). Diffusion pumps have no moving parts. Their operating principle is based on vaporous propel- lants and results in reliable, lowmainte- nance operation. These robust, inex- pensive “workhorses” continue to be used in applications today. Gaede’s 1935 patented gas ballast device for the efficient pumping of vapors can still be found in many vacuum pumps. 1913 The beginning of vacuum metallurgy. Dr. Wilhelm Rohn, head of the Physical Test Laboratory at W.C. Heraeus GmbH in Hanau, devel- oped a process for melting high- purity metals under vacuum. This enabled considerable quality im- provements to steels and non- ferrous metals. Interrupted by the First World War, however, the “pro- cess for vacuum melting and tem- pering of metals and alloys” was not patented until after the war, in 1918. 5 6 | 4 6 1891 1905
1929-1931 As a result of the world economic crisis, Leybold entered into insolvency. 1931 Wilhelm C. Heraeus succeeded in vaporizing metals onto glass. This was another milestone in vacuum coating technology. In the same year, E. Leybold’s Nachfolger, Dr. Manfred Dunkel, took over as managing director and successfully led the company until 1967. This era was significant, as vacuum technology was increasingly used in industrial applications during this time. Accordingly, in addition to technical and scientific knowledge, sig- nificant management skills were also required in order to transfer the findings to process engineering applications. 1934 On December 13, Gaede received the Siemens Ring. The Siemens Ring Foundation was established by industry and scientific representatives in Germany in 1916 to commemorate Werner von Sie- mens’ 100th birthday. In accordance with §1 of its statutes, the foundation pursued the goal of honoring individ- uals “who have rendered outstand- ing and generally recognized ser- vices to technology in conjunction with science. ... [ The Siemens Ring ] should therefore be awarded to rep- resentatives of technology who have stimulated science their achievements as well as to represen- tatives of science who have opened up new areas of technology through their research.” through 1920 1935
1939–1948 During the Second World War, Leybold serves the war effort, and is therefore progressively outsourced from Cologne beginning in 1941. The most important new production facility is located in St. Andreasberg in the Harz. 1945 On June 24, Wolfgang Gaede dies in Munich from diphtheria. 1948–1957 Leybold gradually returns to Cologne. The first half of the 1950s is marked by the company’s reestablishment at its former location in Cologne. 7 6 | 6 6 1936 1945
1957–1967 These 10 years are characterized by the expansion and extension of Leybold’s product portfolio. Its most significant new designs cen- ter around “roots pumps” (today, re- ferred to as “roots blowers”), “which meet the requirements of large-scale industry”. The catalogue reads: “Mod- ern vacuum process engineering re- quires high flow rates in the fine vacu- um range for a significant part of its processes. In fine vacuum processes, for example, large quantities of gas and water vapor are produced at pressures below 1 torr. Vacuum tech- nology is therefore faced with the task of economically/efficiently pumping off these quantities of gas.” Major effort was dedicated to the fields of vacuum impregnation, chem- ical processing, pharmaceuticals and the freeze-drying of foods as well as high and ultra-high vacuum coating plants, metal degassing, etc. At the same time, E. Leybold’s Nachfolger continued on a large scale the devel- opment of standard vacuum compo- nents, such as pumps, valves and gauges for all vacuum pressure lines, leak detectors and the steady expan- sion of its line of scientific and techno- logical teaching tools. 1955 1965
1967 The merger of E. Leybold’s Nachfolger with Heraeus Hoch- vakuum GmbH was confirmed. The new company was named Leybold-Heraeus GmbH, and its shares were equally divided among Degussa, Metallgesellschaft and W.C. Heraeus 9 6 | 8 6 1967–1987 The expansion continues! These years saw a significant expan- sion of the plants in Cologne and Hanau as well as a stronger presence in world markets. The 1980’s in par- ticular were marked by rapid growth. 1987 brought significant changes to the ownership structure. At the beginning of March, Metall- gesellschaft AG withdrew as share- holder in the course of its restructur- ing measures. As a result, Degussa AG and W. C. Heraeus GmbH each became 50 percent shareholders. On September 30, W.C. Heraeus transferred its shares to Degussa, which then became the sole share- holder. Degussa, in turn, decided to transform Leybold Heraeus GmbH into a stock corporation effective October 1. Since then, the new com- pany name has been Leybold Aktien- gesellschaft: a Degussa Company. The registered office of Leybold AG was moved from Cologne to Hanau. Its physical proximity to Degussa’s headquarters in Frankfurt facilitated cooperation between the two entities. 1994 Degussa sold the Leybold AG to the “Oerlikon-Bührle Group”, located in Pfäffikon, Switzerland. All divisions became independent GmbHs (LTDs). Cologne remained the headquarters for the vacuum-pump technology division, and Hürth remained teaching materials division. Vacuum-process engineering stayed in Hanau. the scientific 1966 1975
1975 The first Leybold magnetically- levitated turbomolecular pump was introduced. In the mid-1970s, a new era of high vacuum technology officially began and was referred to as “the era of the magnetically-levitated turbomolecular pump”. Leybold-Heraeus was the first vacuum company in the world to make such a pump commercially available. In the 1980s and 1990s, the magnetically-levitated turbo molecular pump became the most important high vacuum pump in the semicon- ductor industry, due to it being a hydrocarbon-free high vacuum pump. Electromagnets are used in the “bear- ing” of the rapidly-rotating inner parts. 1983 The TRIVAC B oil-sealed rotary vane vacuum pump with inte- grated oil pump made its debut, and achieved great success. This type of pump is, in fact, still wide- ly used in many vacuum applications today. For customers who are able to accept oil molecules in their vacuum tanks, the rotary vane vacuum pump makes for an extraordinarily powerful and reliable pump for both rough and fine vacuum. 1989 The first turbomolecular pump with intelligent drive management was introduced. 1985 1995
1996 Leybold establishes a subsidiary in Tianjin, China - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum’s first Chinese location. Leybold GmbH founded a wholly- owned subsidiary in China in order to leverage the high potential of this emerging economic region and cus- tomer proximity from 1998 onwards. 1 7 | 0 7 1996 1998
2000 The Oerlikon-Bührle Group was renamed UNAXIS, and under- went extensive restructuring focused on semiconductor- related technologies. 2001 The SCREWLINE dry compressing vacuum pump is introduced. 2004 The opening of the new Cologne production facility for high vacuum technology allowed Leybold to meet increased requirements in research and development work. 2002 2004
2006 Cryo pump production begins in Dresden, Germany. Supported by economic growth, the UNAXIS Group was renamed Oerlikon. Leybold operated under the name Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum. 3 7 | 2 7 2005 2006
2007 The SCREWLINE dry screw pump for robust applications is launched. With today’s demanding research and industrial applications, dry compress- ing screw pumps like the SCREWLINE are the preferred backing pumps. Compared to oil-sealed pumps, they’re more powerful and reliable, and their design allows for their use wherever reliable, compact and low-maintenance vacuum solutions are required. A major advantage is that they add a high degree of flexibil- ity to various fields of application. In addition, they can be cleaned onsite by the customer during production breaks. Various connections also allow for easy integration into all systems. 2007 2008
2009 2010 Expansion of the roots pump product line. Leybold launches the RUVAC WH roots vacuum pump, which adds a high degree of flexibility to various fields of application. In addition, it can be cleaned onsite by the customer during production breaks. Various connections also allow for easy inte- gration into all systems. A new dry compressing vacuum pump, the DRYVAC, celebrates its debut. This pump is also based on dry screw technology and combines a compact design with features, including quiet operation, low-waste heat and low- cooling water consumption. An inte- grated frequency converter reduces installation effort. 2011 5 7 | 4 7 Leybold launches the MAGiNTEGRA, a flexible high vacuum pump, for the solar and coating markets. Leybold’s TURBOVAC MAGiNTEGRA magnetically-levitated turbo molecular pumps don’t require the space that’s usually necessary for a separate frequency converter and provide a compact, flexible design, excellent vacuum performance and a standardized line of accessories. It offers main- tenance-free operation in most industrial processes, such as display, solar, coating and R&D applications. 2009 2010
2014 Inauguration of a new logistics hub in Cologne, Germany. This year marked a great leap in vacuum technology with the launch of the TURBOVAC i. Modern analytical instrumentation re- quires highly-developed components. In mass spectrometers particularly, these components need to be pre- cisely matched to each other. Thanks to new turbomolecular pumps, analy- sis throughput is increased signifi- cantly. Leybold has confronted these performance challenges and has designed line of turbomolecular pumps. TURBOVAC i pumps: tailor-made for the analytical instrumentation market. innovative their 7 7 | 6 7 2013 2014
2015 Shift of service activities to Dresden, forming the EU center for service competencies. 2016 Acquisition by Atlas Copco. The Swedish company, Atlas Copco AB, acquired 100 percent of Leybold. Atlas Copco is a multi-brand group with customers in more than 180 countries and approximately 37,000 employees. Leybold is now part of Atlas Copco’s Vacuum Technique business. Atlas Copco relies on Leybold’s traditional brand strength and complements innovative technological expertise and market presence of the Swedes. the 2015 2016
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2017 PHOENIX 4 After 15 years, Leybold launches the PHOENIX 4, a new family of helium leak detectors which meet increasing quality requirements. This innovative product is equally suited to the demands of re- search and development as for industrial applications - from securing the ultra- high vacuum demands of CERN’s particle accelerator to industrial applications, such as leak detection in the Hyperloop vacuum transport system, or for the production of semiconductors. SCROLLVAC plus Users in research and industry increas- ingly rely on dry and robust vacuum solutions, which also provide flexibility of use. With the modernized, air-cooled SCROLLVAC plus, Leybold offers a sim- ple, new and reliable fore vacuum pump which meets these requirements. 1 8 | 0 8 2017
2018 SOGEVAC Neo D The new generation of SOGEVAC vacuum pumps: triple-hitting vacu- um technology for cleaner, quieter, longer-running performance. VARODRY The new VARODRY vacuum pump series is designed and produced in Germany by Leybold, specifically for industrial processes. Give yourself one less headache. With VARODRY, vacuum can be easy, efficient, reli- able and dry. 2018
2019 NOVADRY Until today, oil-sealed rotary vane pumps were the norm. However, using such pumps bears risks, as the pump oil can end up polluting your workspace or, even worse, your food. To avoid these risks and to ensure product freshness, Leybold has developed the “NOVADRY”. This 100% oil-free vacuum pump revo- lutionizes the market. 3 8 | 2 8 2019
2020 ECODRY plus Dry, multi-stage technology receives further development with the new ECODRY plus generation which com- bines the advantages of a smaller size, smart operation, fast pump down times and environmental friendliness. These new dry compressing pumps are particularly well-suited for the oper- ation in analytical applications. TURBOVAC i The development of larger hybrid tur- bomolecular vacuum pumps, with pumping speeds above 900 l/s, is one of the achievements which highlights the ever-lasting pioneering spirit at Leybold. Leybold celebrates its 170 year anniversary. 2020
OTHER NOVELTIES... …would not be possible without vacuum technology! Even the car, the German’s favorite child, would not exist without a vacu- um technology. Glossy coatings are applied to headlights, tail lights and hubcaps. Air is pumped out of brake systems, which are then filled with de- gassed and drained brake fluid. Spe- cially shaped parts for transmissions, torque converters and clutches made of highly-durable materials are cast or welded in a vacuum. Windshields are coated with a wafer-thin, electrically conductive layer of silver which sur- vives both subsequent cutting and bending without damage. Heated windshields defrost within two minutes and in summer, only half of the sun’s heat makes its way inside the car. 5 8 | 4 8 DISCOVER THE NEXT VACUUM TRENDS …
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N E T N W I T T U M ! N U E C E M A M A I N T V O T U O H R E H O Television (1932) From Braun’s tube to the ultra-modern flat-panel displays, a vacuum has been needed from the start! In the early days, low pressure was used to remove electrons. Today, modern display technologies like LCD, LED or recent- ly OLED have resulted from advanced vacuum deposition techniques. Bulky tubes have been replaced by flat, mi- croscopically patterned layers of light-emitting diodes with unprece- dented brilliance. Large display-sizes have become affordable, which would have been impossible with evacuated glass tubes. Remember: “No home entertainment without vacuum”
HIGH-SPEED TRAVEL WITH VACUUM TECHNOLOGY The Hyperloop is an exciting means of mass transportation using vacuum tubes. What is Hyperloop? The Hyperloop is not a new idea. First suggested in the early twentieth cen- tury as a way of transporting passen- gers by using low-pressure tubes, it likely seemed something from the world of fantasy or science fiction. In layman’s terms, the Hyperloop is a system where a passenger compart- ment can travel very smoothly on an air cushion or a similar technology. The compartment is able to achieve extremely high speeds. This forward motion is accomplished with a mini- mum of effort. Why is Hyperloop the Future? Hyperloop is considered the mass travel method of the future. With a tube measuring approximately the same size as a small commercial air- liner (minus the wings), it floats effort- lessly along a magnetic cushion in- side a tube. The Hyperloop gives commuters with a streamlined, mod- ern appearance and frictionless ride. The system is designed to operate at ground level, above ground, and even below ground level depending on local topography. Once commuters enter the Hyper- loop, they are fully protected from in- clement weather, as well as delays caused by traffic crossings. They can sit down and simply enjoy the ride as they are transported to their destina- tion quickly and efficiently. >> 9 8 | 8 8
How is Vacuum Involved in Hyperloop? A special vacuum unit is needed to create the low-pressure environment required inside the tube. This unit was co-developed by Leybold, which developed the vacuum pump. It fits in- side a standard shipping container and offers a “plug and play” solution. The system was developed to achieve and maintain low pressure inside the tubes with a minimum level of energy consumption. Maintaining a high level of operational uptime was also an im- portant part of the equation when de- veloping the Hyperloop. The contain- ers will be placed at 6.2-mile intervals along the route. Since the amount of air inside the tube is greatly reduced, the capsule can reach great speeds while consuming much less energy. 1 9 | 0 9
VACUUM TAKES OVER BAKERIES Along with an improvement in quality, commercial bakery operations also benefit from an increase in productivity. Baking is an ancient activity common in the food trade. Flatbread was com- monly made from a simple recipe of crushed grain and liquid dating from 6000 BC. In comparison, vacuum technology is almost in its infancy. Vacuum has only been technically produced since the seventeenth cen- tury. Today, it is an indispensable part of modern technology. Our highly technological world needs vacuum. Technical devices that many of us rely on every day, such as our cell phones, would not be available without ad- vances in vacuum technology. Vacuum technology also brings changes to the commercial baking industry. Cooling baked goods are being revolutionized. The advantage of bread goods cooled under a vacu- um is obvious: the loaf’s crust is crispy. The volume consistency of the baked goods increases, resulting in a stable product with an extended shelf life. The interior remains soft, which is a desirable selling point, since many baked goods will become deformed in high-humidity environments. Baked products with a uniform ap- pearance look attractive to buyers. They also present an advantage over competitors’ similarly-packaged goods. These factors may encourage con- sumers to make a choice. 3 9 | 2 9 D O M A E S T U U R K C R F S H E T H B N A V A DRYVAC Modern oil-free screw vacuum pumps with integrated frequency converters are optimally suited for vacuum conditioning of baked goods.
Beginning of Industrial Bakery (19th Century) Vacuum is also used in unexpected places. For thousands of years, the production of bread and pastries was done exclusively in standard ovens at temperatures of >200°C or higher. Modern industrial bakeries rely more on “vacuum baking” at much lower temperatures. Using a vacuum reduces total energy con- sumption, resulting in products with a better, fluffier texture. The packed bread’s shelf life is extended since the product is packed immediately after baking. This process does not allow contamination with yeast spores during a typical cool-down process of approximately three hours. Remember: “No perfect long life bread without vacuum” Batch system for vacuum conditioning: rack trolleys enable fast loading. The acceleration of the process re- duces the likelihood of germ infesta- tion. The temperature range of 30°C to 60°C, which is optimal for growing mold, is passed through in two-three minutes instead of two hours when vacuum cooling is used. Cooling in a closed chamber thus creates a kind of lock between baking and packag- ing the product. It significantly mini- mizes the risk of germ infestation and subsequent mold growth. No com- plex sterilization process is necessary after packaging to ensure mold resis- tance. Only clean air and inert gas could provide an additional extension of the minimum shelf life.
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Thanks to modern vacuum technology, several components of the battery can be reused. We know that lithium-ion batteries will primarily be used in electric cars in the future. Therefore, finding ways to recycle these batteries is a major challenge that must be addressed. New, vacuum-assisted recycling pro- cesses for lithium-ion batteries achieve a significantly higher recovery rate than other methods. Thus, with the help of a vacuum, 91% of the battery reclaimed. components can be Valuable metals such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, and manganese can be used for other purposes. After discharging the storage tank and dismantling the battery cell, the com- ponents are compressed. Vacuum distillation is used for separating the electrolytes from the other compo- nents. This process keeps the tem- perature low and thus prevents any toxic gases from forming. The separated solvent is sent to the chemical industry for further process- ing. The recovered metals are then used to manufacture new batteries; almost complete recycling is possible using this method. 5 9 | 4 9
7 9 | 6 9 LEYBOLD‘S SERVICE EVOLUTION We are leading the way! Leybold Service has evolved over the years, but one thing remains the same: the customer is always at the center of what we do, from oil and spare parts to service agreements to advanced services like Remote Connectivity. Using this technology, our customers can remotely manage their vacuum pump fleet with useful instant insights and our field service technicians can take proactive action when needed. Leybold Service is constantly evolving. Backed by a 170 year track record in vacuum knowledge, our professional technicians and Field Service network of fully-equipped Service Technology Centers, we maximize customer uptime while reducing the risk of downtime to an absolute bare minimum. Wherever you are, Leybold, your vacuum service partner, is there to support you. We are constantly innovating to help our customers re- duce their overall cost of ownership, offer even faster service, manage their maintenance needs, and provide the ultimate in professional expertise. The next evolutionary step has arrived.
The next evolution is here! We are now using augmented reality (AR) to train our technicians. The HoloLens™ AR headset is essentially a hands-free computer that technicians wear while servicing actual pumps. 3D models showing complex service procedures are displayed holograph- ically and scaled to the real-world. Technicians operate the HoloLens™ using a virtual touch-screen interface which enables them to view explod- ed or X-ray depictions of products more intuitively than is possible using traditional PDF diagrams. Our goal is to equip every technician with a headset so they can access realistic on-demand training as well as col- laborate and assist each other on AR video calls. Combining this with customer-specific Internet of Things (IoT) data such as vibration and tem- perature history will help our techni- cians diagnose problems in the field. AR will empower the next global hands-on workforce. And we are leading the way!
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NO PARTY IN A VACUUM No matter how much you turn up the music... Oh, how we benefit from the sur- rounding air! First, it keeps us alive but there are many more advantages, we only do notice when the atmosphere is taken away from us. Let’s imagine we wanted to throw a fancy party on the moon. The pressure on the moon is so low that we can consider it to be an ideal vacuum.* Before the VIP guests arrive in their spaceships, the location needs to be cleaned thoroughly. Apparently some astronauts left their footprints in the dust. Being well prepared, we brought a vacuum cleaner from Earth. But in trying to clean with it, we’re soon dis- appointed to see that we’re merely shifting the dust across the footprints, and none of it is entering the vacuum cleaner. Why?! On Earth, the vacuum cleaner creates a pressure difference that moves the air from the outside to the inside. The air particles hit the dust and drag it into the vacuum cleaner bag. On the moon, there are not enough particles left to make that hap- pen. And how could a vacuum cleaner subtract something from nothing? Well okay, the guests will have dirty shoes after the party. Let’s get these helium balloons we brought from Earth to cheer them up. Oh dear, they’re just lying on the ground like ships when the tide is low – there’s no heavier fluid around to keep them floating. Some balloons are even ex- panding until they burst. We can see it, but we can’t hear it, as sound also needs a medium in which to travel. Okay, we don’t need to unpack the fireworks then. Maybe the Mojitos are preventing the guests from turning on their heels. Now all of them are suck- ing on their straws, but no one gets a single drop into their dry mouths. The surrounding atmosphere would have pushed the drink along the pressure difference through the straw. Without this pressure difference, no fluid can move. Now I know why the moon is considered to be so hostile to life. That’s the last straw! I’m heading back to Earth. * For nerds: please don’t start a discussion here about there being no such thing as an ideal vacuum (#Casimir_Effect). For our considerations, an ideal vacuum refers to the absence of a laminar flow. Dr. Stefan Lausberg
PRESENT AND FUTURE Synergies between Atlas Copco and Leybold. For 170 years, Leybold, headquartered in Cologne, Germany, has been devel- oping and supplying vacuum pumps, systems, standardized and custom- ized vacuum solutions and services for various industries worldwide. As a supplier of technology, Leybold is today a leader in numerous industrial applications, such as metal- lurgy and industrial coating technolo- gy. Supplemented by applications in vacuum analytical technology, display produc- tion and research & development, the vacuum pioneer is one of the leading suppliers worldwide. The synergies between Atlas Copco and Leybold in the fields of dry industrial vacuum pumps and high vacuum pumps for science and research has created a technological platform for the develop- ment of sustainable highperformance products for generations to come. 1 0 1 | 0 0 1 We’d like to extend a special thank you to all our colleagues, partner and clients around the world who have helped make this anniversary year an unforgettable experience for all. Pioneering products. Passionately applied.