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Cold heads

Gas cooling refrigerators/Cold heads

Refrigerator/Cold heads of the COOLPOWER i series are gas cooling machines which operate on the basis of a thermodynamic cycle to produce cryogenic temperatures. The COOLPOWER i cold heads are the basic units for cryo pumps of the COOLVAC i series.

A refrigerator is a cooling machine which operates on the basis of a thermodynamic cycle (Carnot) to produce cryogenic temperatures (T ≤ 120 K).

Refrigerators operating according to the Gifford/McMahon principle have succeeded over other methods of cooling cryo pumps and cryogenic applications. Such coolers are produced and used by Leybold.

The cold heads consist essentially of three modules. A drive module, a displacement unit and the cold head stage(s).

The first stage of the cold head cools down to ~ 45 K to 80 K depending on the operating conditions and model, operating temperatures of down to 4 K are reached at the second stage. Both stages are made of copper with high thermal conductivity in order to optimally utilize the available refrigerating capacity.

For pneumatically driven cold heads the pneumatic drive system for the displacer consists of only two mechanically moving components: the rotating control valve and the stepper motor driving the control valve.

With mechanically driven cold heads, movement of the displacer unit is automatically controlled via a crank drive, which leads to low vibration levels.

The standard range of the single and double-stage COOLPOWER i cold heads matches a wide range of applications. Leybold is offering refrigerators with usable refrigerating powers from 20 W to 250 W at 80 K (single-stage). In two-stage systems, the refrigeration capacities of the second stage range in between 5 W and 20 W at 20 K.

Helium compressors from the COOLPAK i range are used to drive the cold heads from the COOLPOWER i series with variable motor speed and thus increased cooling performance. In addition to the standard products, we also offer these cold heads, in custom designs in accordance with customer requirements.

Check out the advantages!

Easy maintenance

Owing to the simple design of the pneumatically driven built-in cold heads, maintenance is easy. It can be performed in place without detaching the cold head from the vacuum chamber. Maintenance for the mechanically driven cold heads is easy as well. It can take place at the place of use and can be carried out without impacting the surrounding infrastructure, in particular with no breaking of the chamber’s vacuum by the service personnel. Their eco mode is set for long term operation and lifetime energy saving.

High reliability and resistance

Our cold heads are used in applications which place particularly high demands on reliability, such as magnetic resonance imaging in medical technology, the cooling of low and high temperature superconductors, and the cooling of detectors in telescopes for astronomy. Their high refrigerating capacity as well as their high cooling performance with a sophisticated stepper motor concept make the COOLPOWER cold heads very reliable. Additionally they come with variable motor speed by adaption from the compressor unit, have a boost mode operation for increased cooling performance and fast and short cooldown times. Our Cold Heads have a lead-free regenerator and don't require liquid helium or liquid nitrogen. The COOLPOWER Cold Heads are RoHS compatible and have very low vibration levels.


Operation of the COOLPOWER cold heads is made simple by a simple key-press. The cold head can be operated in basically every orientation. They have easy process control and temperature control via an internet control unit.


With a small footprint and the option to operate the compressor and the cold head apart you will have near to no space problems.

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